Region X (Northern Mindanao)

Ph northern mindanao

Province Capital
Bukidnon Malaybalay City
Camiguin Mambajao
Lanao del Norte Tubod
Misamis Occidental Oroquieta City
Misamis Oriental Cagayan de Oro City

*Cagayan de Oro City serves as the regional center.     

Vital Statistics

Region 10, usually called Northern Mindanao, is composed of 5 provinces: Bukidnon, Camiguin, Lanao del Norte, Misamis Occidental and Misamis Oriental. It is comprised of 9 cities: Cagayan de Oro, El Salvador, Gingoog, Malaybalay, Valencia, Oroquieta, Ozamiz, Tangub and Iligan. 

The whole region covers a total land area of 19,279.60 sqr km. with a total population of 4.6 million as of the 2015 Census. It has 84 municipalities and about 2,020 barangays.

Northern Mindanao, which geographically lies within Latitude 7º15′ to 9º15′ North and Longitude 123º30′ to 125º30′ East, is bounded on the North by the Bohol Sea, on the South by Lanao del Sur and North Cotabato; on the West by Zamboanga provinces; and on the East by Agusan Provinces and Davao.

Geographical Features


Geologically, the region is a combination of plains, rolling hills, mountains and coastal areas with rich soil, abundant minerals and agricultural resources. It has a strategic location which is why it serves as the gateway to and from the rest of Mindanao. Its modern port facilities and extensive road networks linking it to various parts of the Mindanao region makes it an ideal destination for tourism all year round.  Moreover, it also has abundant water resources which led to the development of hydroelectric power plants in the area. These plants generate the bulk of power available in the Mindanao grid.



Northern Mindanao is a region rich in culture, which can be seen in their numerous festivals. One of the most popular festivals in the region is the Higalaay Festival in Cagayan de Oro City. They celebrate the feast day of St. Augustine every 28th day of August.

Another festival is Kaamulan Festival in Bukidnon. It is an ethnic cultural festival wherein people allocate a relative amount of their time to remember the culture and traditions of the seven ethnic tribes in their area. It is also considered as a thanksgiving festival to celebrate their bountiful harvest.

Moreover, another famous festival in the region is the Lanzones festival in Camiguin, which is a 4-day celebration of this fruit. It is held every 3rd week of October. It is essential to note that the sweetest Lanzones can be found in the islands of Camiguin. Regularly celebrating different causes as one whole community shows that the citizens of Region 10 value camaraderie and friendship.

Kaamulan Festival

Some parts of this region are known to have preserved their tribal beliefs and customs. An example is the Higaunon, a mountain tribe in Bukidnon. Apparently, they still believe in the existence of spirits and gods. Furthermore, they have a god for each element. Another superstition is they need to please the spirits so they will experience something good in return. People in this tribe still live according to their traditions with farming as their primary source of income. Additionally, the ancestors of its current inhabitants mentioned that the region was occupied by four tribes but when northern-central Mindanao was divided into provinces, migrants from Visayas and Luzon began to dominate the region. Since that happened, the tribal communities went to the mountains and forests to continue living out their cultural heritage.


The region’s culture can also be seen in their establishments and churches. These include: The Immaculate Conception Parish Church in Misamis Oriental, Macapagal-Macaraeg Heritage House in Iligan City, and Saint Augustine Cathedral in Cagayan de Oro. These places represent a glimpse of Northern Mindanao’s history because the events that occurred in these locations moulded Region 10 to be what it is today. The province of Camiguin is home to century old churches such as the Santo Rosario Church and Old Catarman Church Ruins. Baylao Church is considered as a miraculous place because a lot of individuals connect it to how its existence saved numerous lives during the eruption of Mount Hibok Hibok. Besides that, there are also a lot of ancestral homes that can be found in this region that date back all the way to the Spanish era.



There are a lot of ethnic languages in the region. Bisaya, Boholano and Cebuano are the major ones. Native languages are still used like Higaonon in Misamis Oriental, Maranao in Lanao Del Norte, Subanen in Misamis Occidental, Binukid in Bukidnon and Kinamiging in Camiguin. English and Tagalog are also understood.



Northern Mindanao has 4 major port facilities which makes it very easy to reach. The port in Ozamiz is one of the busiest port in terms of passenger traffic. The region is also accessible by air through the Cagayan de Oro airport. It is accessible by land from Davao, Butuan and Zamboanga. Due to its high accessibility, it is one of the prime destinations for vacation in the country.


The Province of Bukidnon is located at the center of Mindanao Island, southern part of the Philippines. It is a landlocked province bounded on the North by the City of Cagayan de Oro, on the South by North Cotabato and Davao City, on the East by Agusan del Sur and Davao del Norte, and on the West by Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur.

Occupying a wide plateau in the North Central part of Mindanao, Bukidnon has a progressive agriculture-based economy. It is a major producer of rice, corn, sugar, coffee, rubber, pineapple, tomato, flowers, cassava, and other fruits and vegetables. It is also a major producer of chicken, hogs, and cattle. Having the biggest agricultural area with soils and climate highly suited to agriculture, Bukidnon is the main source of agricultural products and raw materials that feeds the processing plants within the province and the major processing centers of the region. Hence, Bukidnon is tagged as the region’s “Food Basket”.

Bukidnon is also labelled as the highland paradise in the heart of Mindanao. While it derived its name from the Visayan term “bukid” for “mountain”, it is predominantly a rolling grassland plateau with an average elevation of 915 meters. The rolling uplands, deep canyons and valleys alternating with the low plains create a refreshing vista for dwellers and travellers alike.

Bukidnon is relatively cool and moist throughout the year. The refreshing cool climate in the Bukidnon plateau is attributed to its fairly high altitude.

Not only is Bukidnon endowed with natural attractions, the province’s terrain is characterized by deep ravines and dense forest mountains which protect the province from storms. Bukidnon is also typhoon-free.

The mountain ranges, namely, Mt. Kimangkil Range, Pantaron Range, Mt. Tangkulan Range, Mt. Tago Range, Mt. Kalatungan Range Natural Park and Mt. Kitanglad Range Natural Park contain the remaining tropical rainforests of Bukidnon. These mountain ranges host several watersheds that are vital to the ecological and economic balance of Mindanao. Aside from being the homeland of the indigenous peoples (IPs), these ranges are also the habitat of critically endangered, economically important and endemic fauna (like the Philippine Eagle, the second largest bird in the world) and flora (such as the Rafflesia, known as world’s giant flower). Mt. Kitanglad, the highest mountain in the ranges, towering at 2,938 meters (9,639 feet), is second only to Mount Apo among the country’s peaks.

Find out more about Bukidnon Province here:



A leading tourist destination, the island of Camiguin is one of the most beautiful islands in the Philippines. The advantage of Camiguin versus other local tourist destinations lies in the "completeness" of its natural environment and the high diversity of the ecosystem. The Provincial Government of Camiguin, together with the Local Government Units work hand in hand in the improvement the delivery of its services and the meticulous sustainable enhancement of the island's resources to attract more visitors as well as investors.

Camiguinons prize their cultural heritage. This is reflected by the renewed interested in their traditional arts and crafts. Folk dances such as Spanish Dance, Pandanggo sa Ilaw, and Tinikling, all of which are showcased during annual events such as the Lanzones Festival, have become a major tourist attraction.

Camiguin is also famous for its craftworks. Blessed with a natural artistry and abundance of a variety of handicraft materials, the people have long been making baskets, pottery, metal works and other products.

Camiguin Island is known to be the Island "Born of Fire". It has seven volcanoes and several volcanic domes in its 5 municipalities. Volcanic eruptions and land movements have created this spectacular island which is full of natural wonders and historical riches. 

As an island of varied ecosystem, Camiguin's uniqueness lies in its varied terrain, pristine natural environment and rustic setting. Camiguin is one of the Philippines's most beautiful islands - a virtual paradise - as the island allows visitors to experience a sample of untouched beauty in its entirety. Locked in the eternal embrace of the sea, Camiguin continues its simple existence sheltered from and unfazed by the virulent pressures of today's accelerated lifestyles. 

Camiguin generally has good weather with seasonal rain showers enhancing its fresh green environment. Fine weather is guaranteed from April to June, while the coolest is from November to January. 

Camiguin is recognized by the Department of Tourism as one of the top tourist destinations in the country. The island is also listed as among the Top 10 dive spots worldwide.

Check out more of Camiguin Province here:


Lanao del Norte

Lanao del Norte, the "Land of Beauty and Bounty", was once part of the old Province of Lanao, until in 1959, the province was divided into two: the Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur, generally following the natural divide of the Lanao mountain range.

Lanao del Norte is situated in Northern Mindanao, along the northwest and southwest coast of the Mindanao Island. It is bounded on the north by Iligan Bay, on the east by the Provinces of Lanao del Sur and Bukidnon, on the south to southwest by the Illana Bay and the Celebes Sea, and on the west by the Province of Zamboanga del Sur and Panguil Bay. The Province is accessible by land, water and air transportation.

The word Lanao comes from the Marano word “ranao” which means a body of water. “Maranao” is taken to mean lake dweller. Maranaos are the dwellers around Lake Lanao which is situated at the center of the original Province of Lanao.

Culturally, the upland municipalities are mostly populated by the Maranaws who espouse the Muslim culture and Islam religion while the coastal municipalities are generally inhabited by the Christians who practice the Christian culture and religion. The Maranaw culture, which must be preserved, is still practiced in the Municipalities of Balo-i, Pantar and Pantao Ragat, the three known cultural centers of the Province.

The Province prides itself as a major producer of bananas, rice, coconuts, corn and. marine products (e.g., tuna fishes, crabs and shrimps). Also, Lanao del Norte offers world-class sporting facilities set against the backdrop of idyllic and majestic mountain formations and pristine sandy beaches. Athletes and any adventorous traveler can unwind and recharge their weary bodies to attain peak performance whether in sports or in the business arena. The Province is rich in breathtaking scenic spots, cold mountain springs and diverse food choices.

Read more about Lanao del Norte here:


Misamis Occidental

Misamis Occidental is located near the narrow strip of land linking northwestern Mindanao, to the north central part of the island. The province has a total area of 205,522 hectares and is bounded on the northeast by the Mindanao Sea, East by the Iligan Bay, southeast by the Panguil Bay, and the west by the Zamboanga Del Norte and Sur.

The name "Misamis" comes from the word "kuyamis," a local variety of sweet coconut. The province´s original inhabitants were Bukidnons and the Manobos. They were driven into the interior when Visayan settlers arrived. 

Misamis used to be a part of the diocese of Cebu. However, in November 2, 1929, the Philippine Legislature enacted RA 3537, which took effect on January 1, 1930, dividing the province of Misamis into two provinces, namely Misamis Oriental and Misamis Occidental.

Bounded on three directions by bodies of water, Misamis Occidental is known to its neighbors for beautiful waters and bountiful fish and seafood for export. The soil in the rugged interior are suited to coconuts which is the chief crop grown in this province. The Second major crop is the rice. Other crops like corn, abaca, and cacao also thrive in flat and rolling lands.

Misamis Occidental offers broad amenities and pervading culture and heritage, and inspiring pilgrimage.

See Misamis Occidental's official website:


Misamis Oriental

Misamis Oriental is bounded on the north by Macajalar Bay and the Bohol Sea, on the east by Agusan del Norte, on the west by Iligan Bay, and on the south by Bukidnon and Lanao del Norte. 

The province shared a history with Misamis Occidental of being part of the Province of Cebu during the Spanish colonial era.

The land area of the province totals to 313,152 hectares. The majority of the population in the coastal lowlands are of Visayan descent. The main dialect is Cebuano. Other dialects spoken in the province are Hiligaynon, Waray and Maranao.

Misamis Oriental's strategic and accessible location enables the province to be a center of industry, trade and commerce in the region. The province is host to industries such as agricultural, forest, steel, metal, chemical, mineral, rubber and food processing. Major agricultural products include coconut, banana, corn, rice, papaya and cassava.

Misamis Oriental is home to natural parks, beautiful beaches, waterfalls, springs and caves.

Get more information about Misamis Oriental:



Three Climate types prevail in the different areas of Northern  Mindanao:

  Type II—No dry season with very pronounced maximum rainfall from November to January in the           province of Camiguin and Misamis Occidental.

  Type III—Relatively dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year, affecting Misamis    Oriental and Central Bukidnon.

  Type IV—Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year in Northeastern Misamis Oriental and            Bukidnon.

Source: DA RFO 10

Northern Mindanao Quickstats




 Region 10 Total Population


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  Land Area

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Northern Mindanao is an ideal business location. The international seaport and container terminals, serving the region and the rest of Mindanao, are considered the most efficient outside Metro Manila. Electricity is reliable and relatively cheap, water is abundant and telecommunications are modern. There is a large pool of skilled, English-speaking and highly-trainable workforce. In summary, the region prides the following advantages:

  • Presence of power generation service
  • Vast agricultural lands and rich natural resources
  • Strategic location
  • Huge potential for industrial development
  • Peace-loving people, and skilled and literate workforce