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Diabetes and complicationsDiabetes is a disease that affects millions of individuals throughout the world and is defined by high blood glucose levels caused by excessive glucose synthesis, primarily by the liver, and underutilization by insulin-requiring organs such as the liver, adipose, and muscle tissues. Diabetes impacts negatively on the arteries, predisposing them to atherosclerosis, which leads to high blood pressure and other heart problems. It can cause blood vessel damage, stroke, heart failure, heart attack, or kidney failure if not treated. High blood pressure (BP), on the other hand, is a major risk factor for the development and worsening of many diabetes complications, including diabetic retinopathy and/or nephropathy, which affects up to 60% of people with diabetes.

Types of Diabetes

  • Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile diabetes, is caused by the pancreas's inability to produce insulin. Recent evidence suggests that when the pancreas is attacked by its immune cells (autoimmune attack), the immune system produces antibodies and inflammatory cells, making β-cells incapable of producing insulin. Interestingly, some studies have found that breastfeeding reduces the risk of diabetes later in life, but no firm evidence with other nutritional factors has been found. Excessive thirst and urination, hunger, and weight loss can lead to kidney problems, nerve pain, blindness, and heart and blood vessel disease over time.
  • Type 2 Diabetes: People with Type 2 diabetes (T2D), also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes mellitus (AODM), have enough insulin in their bodies, but their cells become resistant to it. It usually affects adults over the age of 35, but it can affect anyone, including children. T2D is primarily determined by genetics and lifestyle factors. Obesity, lack of exercise, increased age, and, to some point, genetic predisposition all contribute to this lifestyle disease. The pancreas produces either insufficient (in insulin resistance) or excessive amounts of insulin. Other risk factors include a strong genetic component and obesity, and there is a direct relationship between the degree of obesity and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • Gestational Diabetes: Gestational diabetes is the third type of diabetes (GD). It can happen temporarily during pregnancy because significant hormonal changes can cause blood sugar elevation in genetically predisposed individuals. GD affects approximately 4% of all pregnant women worldwide, usually during the second trimester, and resolves after the baby is born. Complications can affect both the mother and the baby if GD is not controlled. As a result, a diet and exercise plan, as well as medication, are required.
  • Other Types of Diabetes: There are several other types of diabetes, and a person may have more than one. Diabetes caused by genetic beta-cell defects is known as maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) or neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM). The onset of this multifactorial, polygenic disease is a multistep process characterized by a defect in insulin secretion and action. Long before full-blown diabetes starts to develop, the body cells go through a pre-diabetic condition in which the cells become resistant to insulin or the pancreas is unable to produce as much insulin as needed.
  • Vicious Cycle: High blood pressure is commonly associated with high insulin levels, which may cause high blood pressure and make weight loss more difficult. Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure (BP), is a man-made disease caused by overeating refined grains, sugar, oils, margarine, inactivity, stress, and smoking, which was unheard of in primitive cultures that ate unprocessed foods. Diabetes can be caused by a disease, genetics, or a poor diet, whereas hypertension is typically caused by genetics, diet, and stress. Individuals with abnormal glucose and insulin metabolism are more likely to develop hypertension, and; untreated hypertension has higher than normal plasma insulin, is resistant to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and is frequently associated with lipid disorders.

The good news is that type 2 diabetes can be avoided by anyone.

Diabetes can be managed by maintaining ideal weight, changing one's diet, taking food supplements as needed, and by exercising. For the treatment of hypertension in patients with metabolic complications, several therapies are available. The initial approach is thought to be lifestyle modification with weight management being the most important component. Get lose from those excessive weight or unwanted fats from your body and maintain a healthy body coupled with adequate physical activity. Of course, make the best food choices and have a diet that promises a better glucose control.

JEZER Z. CALINGACION, RND
PNFP ZSP

References:

Chattopadhyay, D. (2020). Diabetes and Hypertension: A Cause and Effect Synergy? Retrieved November 11, 2021, from the Academia website: https://www.academia.edu/8107033/Diabetes_and_Hypertension_A_Cause_and_Effect_Synergy

Corry, D.B., & Tuck, M.L. (1996). Glucose and insulin metabolism in hypertension. Retrieved November 11, 2021, from the PubMed website: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8739882/

UV RadiationWe all need sunlight, the fact that it is important for the absorption of Vitamin D, sunlight is very significant to humans. But, as the old saying goes, “too much of everything is bad”, therefore, prolonged exposure to direct sun rays can cause harmful effects to our bodies.

Ultraviolet radiation are invisible rays that are part of the energy that comes from the sun. This can burn the skin and cause skin cancer. UV radiation is made up of three types of rays -- ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), and ultraviolet C (UVC). UVC is the most dangerous type of ultraviolet light but cannot penetrate earth's protective ozone layer. Therefore, it poses no threat to humans, animals or plant life on earth. UVA and UVB, on the other hand, do penetrate the ozone layer in attenuated form and reach the surface of the planet. UVA is weaker than UVB but passes further into the skin than UVB. It is now generally accepted that both UVA and UVB cause skin cancer, including melanoma.

How harmful are UV rays? Most skin cancers are a result of exposure to the UV rays of sunlight. Both basal cell and squamous cell cancers (the most common types of skin cancer) tend to be found on sun-exposed parts of the body, and their occurrence is typically related to lifetime sun exposure. The risk of melanoma, a more serious but less common type of skin cancer, is also related to sun exposure, although perhaps not as strongly. Skin cancer has also been linked to exposure to some man-made sources of UV rays. In addition to skin cancer, exposure to UV rays can cause other health problems as follows:

  • UV rays, either from the sun or from artificial sources like tanning beds, can cause sunburn.
  • Exposure to UV rays can cause premature aging of the skin and signs of sun damage such as wrinkles, leathery skin, liver spots, actinic keratosis, and solar elastosis.
  • UV rays can also cause eye problems. They can cause the cornea (on the front of the eye) to become inflamed or burned. They can also lead to the formation of cataracts (clouding of the lens of the eye) and pterygium (tissue growth on the surface of the eye), both of which can impair vision.
  • Exposure to UV rays can also weaken the immune system, so that the body has a harder time fending off infections. This can lead to problems such as reactivation of herpes triggered by exposure to the sun or other sources of UV rays. It can also cause vaccines to be less effective.

To protect yourself from UV radiation, you must stay under the shade, especially during midday hours, wear clothes that cover your arms and legs, consider options to protect your children, wear a wide brim hat to shade your face, head, ears, and neck, wear wraparound sunglasses that block both UVA and UVB rays, use sunscreen with sun protection factor (SPF) 15 or higher, for both UVA and UVB protection, and avoid indoor tanning as it is particularly dangerous for younger users. Recently, it has been found that people who begin indoor tanning during adolescence or early adulthood have a higher risk of developing melanoma.

Long sun exposure doesn’t contribute to the absorption of Vitamin D. The recommended time to be out in the sun is between 7:00 am – 9:00 am where it helps in the absorption of Vitamin D. Also, using an umbrella can protect you from the harmful effects of UV radiation. Enjoy the heat of the sun without damaging and compromising your skin and health. Limit sun exposure.

NO I Zamubec Alomar C. Adlawan

References:

Marks, J. (2021). Medical Definition of UV Radiation. Retrieved from the Medicine Net website: https://www.medicinenet.com/uv_radiation/definition.htm [Last updated: June 3, 2021]

American Cancer Society (2019). Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation. Retrieved from the ACS website: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/radiation-exposure/uv-radiation.html [Last updated: July 10, 2019]

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2021). UV Radiation. Retrieved from the CDC website: https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/features/uv-radiation-safety/index.html [Last updated: June 28, 2021]

VAWNovember 25 to December 12 of every year has been declared as the “18-Day Campaign to End Violence against Women (VAW)” Under Proclamation 1172, Series of 2006. The Philippine Commission on Women (PCW), in coordination with the Inter-Agency Council on Violence against Women and their Children (IACVAWC), spearheads the observance of the 18-Day Campaign to End Violence against Women. In 2016, IACVAWC adopted the campaign theme “VAW-free community starts with Me” for the 18-Day Campaign to End VAW. This theme shall be used every year from 2016-2021. The theme strengthens the campaign to positive advocacy as it enjoins everyone to pursue the common vision of a community free from violence against women, and highlights what can be done to achieve such.

VAW violates human rights and continues to be one of the country’s never-ending social problems. It manifests and perpetuates discrimination and gender inequality. It violates the fundamental right of women to live a life free from violence as upheld in international commitments and their local translation. VAW also affects women and girls’ general well-being, leaving long-term physical, psychological, sexual, and mental consequences, thereby hampering women from achieving their full potential. (Philippine Commission on Women)

The World Health Organization global estimates indicate that about 1 in 3 women (35%) worldwide have experienced either physical or sexual violence from intimate partners or non-partner in their lifetime. In the Philippines, the 2017 National Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) released by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), showed that 1 in 4 Filipino women, aged 15-49, has experienced physical, emotional, or sexual violence from their husband or partner. Since the onset of COVID-19 quarantine restrictions from March 2020 to August 2021, a total of 18,945 VAW cases have been reported to the PNP Women and Children Protection Center. (Philippine Commission on Women).

The 2021 campaign will focus on intensifying awareness-raising on the core provisions of the law, the penalties, and mechanisms in place as the country continue to fight the COVID-19 pandemic which breeds various forms of VAW, especially online with many spending their time in the digital realm. Thus, the 2021 18-Day Campaign to End VAW shall spotlight the Republic Act No. 11313, also known as, “Safe Spaces Act”. "Safe Spaces Act" is an act defining Gender-Based Sexual Harassment in Streets, Public Spaces, Online, Workplaces, and Educational or Training Institutions, Providing Protective Measures and Prescribing Penalties Therefor.

Let us end violence against women and children by uniting and fighting for what is right for the future of everyone. With this joint effort, all women in our society will live in peace and free from violence, as well as children, will be safe and secure.

#EndViolenceAgainstWomen

-PNFP Rowence Zorilla

 

References:

Philippine Commission on Women. 2021 18-Day Campaign to End Violence against Women. Retrieved November 12, 2021 from the PCW website: https://pcw.gov.ph/2021-18-day-campaign-to-end-violence-against-women/

DILG. Observance of the 18-Day Campaign to End Violence Against Women. Retrieved November 12, 2021 from the Department of Interior and Local Government website: https://www.dilg.gov.ph/events/Observance-of-the-18-Day-Campaign-to-End-Violence-Against-Women/697

Stress contributory factorWe are all susceptible to stress. It's a natural part of life, but too much stress can harm our health by raising our blood pressure and damaging our kidneys. We can keep our kidneys healthier and live a healthier life overall if we understand how stress affects our health and find ways to manage it.

When your body is subjected to high levels of stress for extended periods, these physical reactions, if left unchecked, can eventually harm your health. Increased blood pressure, a faster heart rate, and more fat and sugar in your blood can all contribute to a variety of health problems, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease (also known as cardiovascular disease).

Stress, as well as uncontrolled reactions to stress, can cause kidney damage. Your kidneys, as blood-filtering units in your body, are prone to problems with blood circulation and blood vessels. High blood pressure and blood sugar levels can put additional strain on your kidneys. Managing stress is an important part of maintaining your overall health, whether your goal is to prevent heart and/or kidney disease, or to improve your health while living with heart and/or kidney disease.

It is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to eliminate stress or to never have any physical reactions to stress. There are, however, steps you can take to help manage stress and control your body's response to stress. Some simple stress-reduction techniques include:

  • Limit your intake of salt and caffeine (especially if you have high blood pressure), sugar (especially if you have diabetes), and fats (especially if you have heart or blood vessel disease).
  • Set aside time to relax, get enough sleep and stick to a regular sleep schedule, maintain a positive attitude and outlook, take a vacation, exercise regularly, and engage in more physical activity.

This is not an excellent summary of stress-reduction techniques. Everyone should strive to improve their diet and increase their physical activity. Get your stress management regimen more personalized and venture to activities well-fitting to you. Remember, it is you who knows more about yourself. Take control of things that matter to you with a strong conviction to do it and do not allow it to control you instead.

JEZER Z. CALINGACION, RND
PNFP ZSP

References:

National Kidney Foundation. Stress and Your Kidneys. Retrieved November 12, 2021, from the National Kidney Foundation website: https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/Stress_and_your_Kidneys [Last updated: June 5, 2020]

Managing Stress and Kidney Disease. Retrieved November 12, 2021, from the Fresenius Kidney Care website: https://www.freseniuskidneycare.com/thrive-central/stress-and-kidney-disease

PCOSMany women nowadays, have problems with their menstrual cycle causing them to worry much about their overall health. For ladies, we often think that diet has something to do with it, plus our lifestyle activity that contributes to irregular menstrual periods. But what are the health implications of irregular periods and how does diet and exercise help improve this condition? Here is the overall view of PCOS that leads to irregular menstruation in most women.

Polycystic ovary disorder (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of regenerative age. Women with PCOS may have occasional or delayed menstrual periods or abundant male hormone (androgen) levels. With this, the ovaries may create various small collections of liquid (follicles) and come up short to frequently discharge eggs. The exact cause of PCOS is obscure. Studies state that the cause of PCOS can also be associated with insulin levels build-up in the body that cause higher androgen levels (male hormone). This may be related to genetics and lifestyle.

PCOS not just worries us but causes serious medical and/or health conditions that include infertility or subfertility, endometrial cancer, type II diabetes, lipid abnormalities, cardiovascular diseases, and obstructive sleep apnea (cessation of breathing). Early diagnosis and treatment together with weight loss may decrease the chance of long-term complications such as type 2 diabetes and heart medical conditions. However, in general, early detection is critical in controlling PCOS by noting for early symptoms such as missed periods or irregular periods, hirsutism (excess body hair in the chest area, stomach, and face), weight gain, acne or oily skin, and acanthosis nigricans (dark or thick skin patches on the neck linings, armpits and under the breast area.

The best way to regulate your cycle in the most simple and effective ways are as follows:

  • Weight loss. Losing 5% to 10% of your total current bodyweight may improve the reproductive aspects of PCOS for those overweight and obese individuals.
  • Taking the birth control pill. As we all know, birth control medication regulates hormone levels and eventually lowers testosterone to regulate the menstrual cycle.
  • Exercise and lifestyle change. Exercise at least 30 to 45 minutes daily and avoid alcohol and smoking habits that will improve overall well-being.

For all the women out there experiencing signs and symptoms of PCOS, it is important to seek medical advice and ask your dietitian for dietary management that is designed for you. Early prevention is always better than cure. Ladies, let’s get diagnosed at an early stage when we notice something unusual with our monthly periods. As always, it has been a nicer move to know if something is wrong at an earlier time for us to effectively manage whatever it is.

NO II Joanna Marie E. Baltazar

References:

Galan, N., & Sadaty, A. (2021). Why Women with PCOS Have Irregular Periods. Retrieved November 8, 2021, from the Very Well Health website: https://www.verywellhealth.com/why-do-women-with-pcos-have-irregular-periods-2616650 [Last updated: June 15, 2021]

Mayo Clinic. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Retrieved November 8, 2021, from the Mayo Clinic website: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pcos/symptoms-causes/syc-20353439 [Last updated: October 3, 2020]

Jean Hailes for Women’s Health. What are irregular periods? Retrieved November 8, 2021, from the Jean Hailes for Women’s Health website: https://www.jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/pcos/irregular-periods-management-treatment [Last updated: April 27, 2021]

John Hopkins Medicine. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Retrieved November 8, 2021, from the John Hopkins Medicine website:  https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos

Stress contributory factorWe are all susceptible to stress. It's a natural part of life, but too much stress can harm our health by raising our blood pressure and damaging our kidneys. We can keep our kidneys healthier and live a healthier life overall if we understand how stress affects our health and find ways to manage it.

When your body is subjected to high levels of stress for extended periods, these physical reactions, if left unchecked, can eventually harm your health. Increased blood pressure, a faster heart rate, and more fat and sugar in your blood can all contribute to a variety of health problems, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease (also known as cardiovascular disease).

Stress, as well as uncontrolled reactions to stress, can cause kidney damage. Your kidneys, as blood-filtering units in your body, are prone to problems with blood circulation and blood vessels. High blood pressure and blood sugar levels can put additional strain on your kidneys. Managing stress is an important part of maintaining your overall health, whether your goal is to prevent heart and/or kidney disease, or to improve your health while living with heart and/or kidney disease.

It is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to eliminate stress or to never have any physical reactions to stress. There are, however, steps you can take to help manage stress and control your body's response to stress. Some simple stress-reduction techniques include:

  • Limit your intake of salt and caffeine (especially if you have high blood pressure), sugar (especially if you have diabetes), and fats (especially if you have heart or blood vessel disease).
  • Set aside time to relax, get enough sleep and stick to a regular sleep schedule, maintain a positive attitude and outlook, take a vacation, exercise regularly, and engage in more physical activity.

This is not an excellent summary of stress-reduction techniques. Everyone should strive to improve their diet and increase their physical activity. Get your stress management regimen more personalized and venture to activities well-fitting to you. Remember, it is you who knows more about yourself. Take control of things that matter to you with a strong conviction to do it and do not allow it to control you instead.

JEZER Z. CALINGACION, RND
PNFP ZSP

References:

National Kidney Foundation. Stress and Your Kidneys. Retrieved November 12, 2021, from the National Kidney Foundation website: https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/Stress_and_your_Kidneys [Last updated: June 5, 2020]

Managing Stress and Kidney Disease. Retrieved November 12, 2021, from the Fresenius Kidney Care website: https://www.freseniuskidneycare.com/thrive-central/stress-and-kidney-disease