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Geography


The National Capital Region (NCR) is the only region in the country without any province. It is subdivided into 17 local government units (LGUs) comprising of 16 cities and one municipality.  The 16 cities include Caloocan, Malabon, Navotas, Valenzuela, Quezon City, Marikina, Pasig, Taguig, Makati, Manila, Mandaluyong, San Juan, Pasay, Parañaque, Las Piñas, and Muntinlupa. Pateros is the lone municipality in the region. Each of the 16 cities and one municipality in Metro Manila is governed by a Mayor. NCR is bordered by the provinces of Bulacan to the north, Rizal to the east, Cavite to the south-west and Laguna to the south. Manila Bay lies to the west and Laguna de Bay to the south-east.

Climate


Manila features  a tropical wet and dry climate that borders on a tropical monsoon climate. Together with the rest of the Philippines, Manila lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that the temperature range is very small, rarely going lower than 20oC and going higher than 38oC. However, humidity levels are usually very high which makes it feel much warmer. It has a distinct, albeit relatively short dry season from January through April, and relatively lengthy wet season from May through December.

Population


As of August 1, 2015, the total population of NCR is 12,877,253 (PSA, Population Censuses). There was an increase of 1.02 million persons over the May 2010 population and 2.94 million in 2000. The region’s population is 13% of the entire country’s population.

The seven (7) most populated barangays in the region are mostly in Quezon City (Commonwealth, Batasan Hills, Payatas, Holy Spirit and Pasong Tamo). Barangay 176 in Caloocan ranks number one with almost 247 thousand population. 

 

Residents in Metro Manila are relatively young who belong to the working group. 

 

Transportation


The metropolis has an extensive system of highways connecting the various cities and municipality. The major roads include ten radial roads, which branch out from central Manila and five circumferencial roads which from a series of cencentric semi-conductors arcs around downtown Manila. Most of these roads are very important transportation arteries. One is the C4 (Circumferencial Road 4), also called Epifanio de los Avenue or more popularly as EDSA.

It is the major thoroughfare in Metro Manila connecting five cities in Metro Manila, namely Pasay, Makati, Mandaluyong, Quezon City Caloocan.

Metro Manila is notorious for its traffic jams. A trip that should take 20 minutes will last an hour or more especially during rush hour. Consequently, the Metro Manila Development Authority has constructed many projects to decongest traffic. There are two different rapid transit system in Metro Manila: the Manila Light Rail Transit System, or the LRT, and the Manila Metro Rail Transit System, or the MRT. The Yellow Line (LRT-1) and the Purple Line (LRT-2) from the LRT network, while the Blue line (MRT-3) forms the MRT network. Philippine National Railways (PNR) also operates two main-line railway lines within Metro Manila, all part of the once-flourishing Luzon railway system. The northern line, known as Northrail and connecting Manila to Caloocan City, is currently closed. Line extensions are proposed to Valenzuela City and further on to Bulacan and Pampanga. the trans-metro Manila portion of the still-open southern line, known as Southrail, commences at Tutuban station in Tondo, Manilak, passes through the cities of Manila Makati, Taguig, Paranaque and Las Pinas, and ends in Barangay Buli, Muntinlupa City, before entering the province of Laguna. Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA), which straddles the boundary between Paranaque City and Pasay City, is the country's busiest airport. It consists of a domestic terminal and two international terminals. There are two main runways and the hangar of the Philippine Airlines is located near the Villamor Air Base. NAIA will be closed in favor of the Diosdado Macapagal International Airport in Pampanga, as the major gateway of the Philippines.

 

Language


Filipino, also Pilipino, is the Tagalog language designated as the national language and one of two official languages of the Philippines. Filipino/Tagalog is the first language of a third of the population of the Philippines, It is centered around Metro Manila but is known almost universally throughout the country.

 

Economy


Metro Manila is the financial, commercial and industrial center of the Philippines. Makati is the largest financial and economic hub of the metropolitan area and the country. regarded as the metropolis' central business district (CBD), it is the base of many Philippines' largest corporations including the Ayala group of Companies, as well as the nation's major banks. The Makati area is built around the former Nielsen Air Base, an American installation during World War IIm and its runways now form the district's main roads, which cross each other at the Makati Triangle, home of the nation's stock exchange. Different well-known skyscrapers in Metro Manila are here like PBCom Tower and G. T. International Tower. Foreign corporations also have their main Philippine hubs here.

New developments seeking to become vibrant centers of their own are Bonifacio Global City in Taguig; Eastwood City in Quezon City; the Manila Bay City Reclamation Area in the cities of Pasay, Paranaque and Las Pinas; and Alabang Estates, madrigal Business Park, and Fillinvest Corporate City in Muntinlupa. triangle park in Quezon City is the latest addition to the list. Ortigas Center is the second most important business district in Metro Manila. Situated in Mandaluyong and Pasig, it is home to the headquarters of several major Philippine companies such as San Miguel Corporation and Meralco, and hosts manila shopping malls and hotels. The Asian Development Bank, also has its headquarters here.

The traditional business center of Chinese-Filipino businessmen and the country's CBD prior to the development of the Makati CBD was the Binondo District in the City of Manila.

 

Nutrition


Metro Manila inspite of its urbanized state experiences the effects of malnutrition. In fact, the region has a double burden of malnutrition in the form of undernutrition and overnutrition affecting vulnerable population groups such as children and women.

 

I.     Nutrition Challenges / Manifestations

 

A.     Double Burden of Malnutrition

 

Stunting and wasting among under - five children are significant public health problems while overweight and obesity rates among children and adults are higher than the national levels

 

Based on the 2015 Updating of the Nutritional Status of Filipino Children conducted by the Food and Nutrition Institute of the Department of Science and Technology (FNRI-DOST), among children less than 5 years old, one (1) out of 10 are underweight (15.1%).  This is lower by 6.4 percentage points than the national rate of 21.5%.  Meanwhile, one (1) in every four (4) children 0-5 years old or 24.9% are stunted in the region. This is lower by 8.5 percentage points than the national prevalence of 33.4%. 

 

About six (6) out of 100 or 6.4% children 0-5 years old are wasted or thin. Although this rate is lower than the national prevalence rate of 7.1%, it is considered to be a public health problem. 

 

On the other hand, six (6) out of 100 under-five children or 6.0% are overweight for their height. This rate is higher by 2.1 percentage points than the national prevalence of 3.9%.

 

 

Based on the same survey, children living in rural areas and those from the poorest quantile are more -at-risk to underweight and stunting, while those in urban areas such as Metro Manila and from the richest quantile are more at-risk to overnutrition.

For children 5-10 years old, incidence of underweight children is one (1) in every five (5) children (20.9%) which is lower by 10.3 percentage points than the national rate of 31.2%. About one (1) out of five (5) or 20.5% children are stunted, lower than the national prevalence of 31.1%.

In 2015, seven (7) out of 100 or 7.5% children were found to be wasted or thin. Though the prevalence rate of wasting has continuously decreased from 2011 to 2015, the prevalence of 7.5% is still considered to be a public health problem.  However, the percentage of overweight/obese children 5-10 years old has been increasing from 2011-2015.   About one (1) of 10 or 17.9% are overweight for their height. This is higher by 9.3 percentage points than the national prevalence of 8.6%. 

Nutritional status of adolescents ages 10-19 revealed that two (2) out of 10 or 24.3% are stunted. This is lower than the national prevalence of 31.9%. One (1) out of 10 or 13.5% of adolescents are wasted and thin. This is higher than the national prevalence of 12.5%.  

Meanwhile, one (1) out of 10 or 16.1% are overweight and obese. This is higher by 6.9 percentage points than the national prevalence of 9.2%. 

Among adults 20 years old and over, nine (9) out of 100 or 9.3% are chronic energy deficient, four (4) out of 10 or 37.7% are overweight and obese. The prevalence rates of underweight and overweight among adults have a “see-saw” trend from 2011 to 2015. The prevalence of underweight adults increased from 7.8% in 2013 to 9.3% in 2015. On the other hand, the prevalence of overweight/obesity among adults decreased from 39.9 (2013) to 37.7% (2015).

B.     Micronutrient Deficiencies

 

Iron Deficiency Anemia. In 2013, the prevalence of anemia among children 6 months to less than 5 years old is 10.0%, lower than the national prevalence of 13.8%. Among 6 to12 years and old and adolescents 13 to 19 years old in Metro Manila were 6.9% and 6.0%, respectively.  Both prevalence rates are lower by 4.2 and 1.7 percentage points, respectively than of the national prevalence. The prevalence of IDA in all age groups is considered to be “mild” public health significance.

Meanwhile, the prevalence rates of anemia among pregnant and lactating women continue to decrease from 2003 to 2013. Significant decrease in the prevalence rates of anemia among pregnant and lactating women were noted from 42.5% (2008) to 24.6% (2013) and 31.6% (2008) to 16.7% (2013), respectively. Unfortunately, the prevalence rate of anemia per region is not available.

In 2013, teenage pregnant mothers were more anemic than older mothers while pregnant women from rich quintile and those residing in urban communities are more at-risk to anemia.

 

Vitamin A Deficiency.  The prevalence of VAD among 5 months to less than 5 years old is 27.3% is considered “severe” public health problem in NCR. The prevalence of 13.9% among 6-12 years old indicates “moderate” public health problem. 

Iodine Deficiency Disorder. In 2013, the prevalence of UIE <50 ug/L among all age groups are considered severe to moderate that corresponds to insufficient iodine intake.

C.     Maternal Malnutrition

The poor nutritional status of pregnant women makes them at risk of delivering low birth weight babies and having other negative pregnancy outcomes like stillbirths and miscarriages.

 

he prevalence of low birth weight decreased from 15.4% in 2011 to 9.8% in 2015, lower than the national.  

Based on the 2015 FNRI-DOST survey, teenage pregnant mothers (39.6%) in the country were more nutritionally at-risk than older mothers. Based on the NDHS 2017, children born to very young mothers are at increased risk of sickness and death. It increases the risk for undernutrition and low birth weight. In Metro Manila, 4.6% of women age 15-19 have had a livebirth birth and 5.6% of teenagers have begun childbearing.  These teenagers as reported by the health and nutrition workers usually do not attend pre-natal care because the pregnancy is kept secret.

 

Teenage fertility (aged 15-19 years) in the region almost tripled in the past decade. NCR ranks third across all regions in teenage fertility (17/7%), next to CAR and Region II. Of those young women aged 15-19 years, around 13.9% of them have begun childbearing while 3.8% were pregnant with first child.

 

Mothers from the poorest and poor wealth quintiles, not working and more children have higher proportion of nutritionally at-risk and chronic energy deficient pregnant women.

In 2015, 20.8% pregnant mothers in Metro Manila were nutritionally at-risk while 15.8% and 30.7% lactating women were chronic energy deficient (CED) and overweight/obese, respectively. The prevalence of CED is higher by 2.2 percentage points than the national prevalence of 13.6%. Prevalence of overweight/obesity among lactating women is much higher by 8.3 percentage points than the national prevalence of 22.4%.  

Further, Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) in 2016 was 45 per 100,000 livebirths. Maternal deaths are mainly due to medical conditions complicated by pregnancy particularly hypertension and hemorrhage (FHSIS 2016).